Chemistry of Life

Molecular genetics, biochemistry

adenylate cyclases

Adenylyl (adenylate) cyclases are transmembrane enzymes that cross the membrane twelve times, and which convert ATP to the second-messenger cAMP (3',5' cyclic AMP) and pyrophosphate (Pi). Likewise, guanylate cyclases convert GTP to the second messenger, cGMP.

Adenylyl cyclases are coincidence detectors, meaning that they are only activated by several different signals occurring together – they are modulated by G-proteins, forskolin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and other class-specific substrates.

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. . . transcription begun 10/06/06